Category: Buddhist holidays
The celebration of Duynhor is connected with the Kalachakra Tantra preaching by Buddha, which is the bedrock of vadzhrayana philosophy. Kalachakra literally means "the wheel of time", and it is one of the most esoteric concepts of Buddhist Tantra. The main purpose of Kalachakra Tantra, as well as of any other Buddhist teachings is the achievement of the state of Enlightenment (the state of Buddha), the internal achievement.
The Duynhor-Khural is celebrated during three days, from 14th to 16th day of the third month of the lunar calendar (April-May). The main celebration falls on full moon day. During the days of the festival, solemn prayers (Khural) are held in monasteries by reading the Kalachakra Tantra laghu-raja treatise. A typical element of these prayers is that while reading the monks wear special head-dresses and use sacred objects which symbolize the elements of the Kalachakra Tantra teaching. During these days particular importance is given to reading mantras. It is also worth mentioning that Kalachakra Thangka Paintings are the strongest assistants for those who need mental and physical strength. The Kalachakra Tantra also teaches about the subtle internal structure of the human body.
The Kalachakra Tantra is divided into five chapters:
The first two chapters are considered the "ground Kalachakra." The first chapter deals with what is called the "outer Kalachakra" – the physical world – and in particular the calculation system for the Kalachakra calendar, the birth and death of universes, our solar system and the workings of the elements.
The second chapter deals with the "inner Kalachakra," and concerns processes of human gestation and birth, the classification of the functions within the human body and experience, and the vajra-kaya; the expression of human physical existence in terms of channels, winds, drops and so forth. Human experience is by some described in terms of four mind states: waking, dream, deep sleep, and a fourth state which is available through the energies of sexual orgasm. The potentials (drops) which give rise to these states are described, together with the processes that flow from them.
The last three chapters describe the "other" or "alternative Kalachakra," and deal with the path and fruition. The third chapter deals with the preparation for the meditation practices of the system: the initiations of Kalachakra. The fourth chapter explains the actual meditation practices themselves, both the meditation on the mandala and its deities in the generation stage practices, and the perfection or completion stage practices of the Six Yogas. The fifth and final chapter describes the state of enlightenment (Relijin) that results from the practice.
The difference of Kalachakra Tantra from other doctrines can be found in some writings about this teaching - following its complex set of psycho-physical exercises it claims that it is possible to achieve Enlightenment within only one life and not during a long period of innumerous reincarnations. According to a legend, the austere person Tsilupa began to spread the Kalachakra Tantra in 965 in India, having brought the teaching from the legendary country of Shambhala.
Three types of Wheels of Time are distinguished in Kalachakra Tantra: external, internal, and transformative. The external circle of time - a continuous stream of changes at the level of the surrounding world and its objects. The inner circle of time - a continuous stream of changes in life, at the level of energy channels and prana. Kalachakra Tantra states that external phenomena are linked to the inner world of man through mind and body, and thus people may influence the world by changing themselves. Developing inner peace and calmness, people will be able to attain harmony in their relations with other people, and expand the loving kindness and compassion in the world.
On the other hand, if some external conditions are favorable for internal activity - the others may hinder this. The astrology of Kalachakra is aimed to identify the time opportunity for various initiatives, allowing people to harmonize their internal energy with the external energy of circumstances. The astrological system of Kalachakra is put at the basis of creation of the new Tibetan astrological calendar.
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